Geographic Information Systems (GIS) help to arrange, execute, and report projects. They can raise accuracy and decrease error. GIS is an integration technique. The first step in this process is to visualize an information network requiring supporting ideas, quality control, indexing, maintenance, security, privacy, and sociability. As considering a particular theme, subject, or matter of interest, the Internet supplies potential for developing worldwide information systems. To visualize GIS, you must see an alignment of stacked map layers registered to other layers with unique themes. Themes such as sewer networks, topography, phone lines, and more are collated together to become a project. The GIS model conceptually uses common map base storing, both spatial and attribute data, for all of the information of the layers. Theoretically, infinite maps can be produced and accessed.

Researchers presented GIS in the 60s. The term was introduced in 1964. The first data management system was developed in the late 70s. There are three eras in the history of GIS. These are of modeling and fundamental development (1969-1976), integrated assessments (1977-1985), and issue-oriented research and analysis (1986-1995).

Due to the advantages of GIS, its use is increasing swiftly. Many different types of organizations and users are interested in this new and exciting technology. The developers of GIS projects often find that selecting and implementing GIS solutions is a difficult and demanding task. New and existing users are advised to plan strategically before system acquisition, startup, or the initiation of a new project on an existing system. Consultants and vendors can assist in the planning process. It is recommended that companies planning to adapt to GIS discuss the utility of the technology with existing users performing similar tasks.

One advantage of information networks is that they can directly address crucial issues in building a reliable system through: standardization, a publishing model, stability of information sources, and custodianship of data, a legal library, and funding. Traditional maps have some disadvantages versus maps that have been automated into a GIS. They are static and fixed with respect to data, projection, scale, and coordinate system. When a user needs to integrate maps of different scale, it is often necessary to redraft the maps. Map updates may require a tedious manner process. Users face practical limits on the number of maps that can be manually overlaid. It is difficult to combine multiple map sheets together into a seamless mosaic map that covers more than one map sheet or manuscript.

Technologies similar to GIS include computer assisted drawing and drafting (CADD), database management systems (DBMS), and automated mapping/facilities management systems (AM/FM). Each of these technologies has been developed for specific purposes. A clear distinction can be drawn between GIS and other technologies. GIS has evolved exclusively to manage and analyze mapped (spatial) data. The ability of GIS to predict all data processing functions on geographic location makes this technology distinct.

GIS can be defined as an integrated computerized system for compiling, storing, manipulating, and outputting spatial data maps. A true GIS comprises data, hardware, software, and users. A good analysis of this approach focuses on the spatial data handled by the GIS. Data flows through a GIS by a series of system functions. Data is manipulated in GIS by a series of functional programs called “tools” that operate on mapped data. Users may also select a series of output options for communicating analysis results to end users.

The concept of GIS as a stacked series of mapped data layers is quite intuitive. The actual creation of a useful system is very demanding to system developers. GIS requires data to be tied to common geographic parameters or routes called a base map. System developers should follow a life cycle approach to establish GIS project applications. This is a strategic approach following through on planning, design, implementation, and maintenance of these types of systems. The life cycle approach considers user needs and focuses on data that has to be managed and analyzed by the system.

Geographic Information Systems result in serious change to the way we collect, store, analyze, and share geographic data. Users can rely on experiences of other users, businesses, and private consultants to aid them in the startup process of GIS efforts. Each GIS is its own. Its data and applications need be tailored to fit the demands of the user.